ME/CFS, long COVID and Post Treatment and untreated Borrelia
Role of Prostaglandin E2
In 2018 we published that PGE2 (Prostaglandin E2) is elevated in patients with ME/CFS. In the meantime we have observed the same in long COVID and Post treatment and untreated Borrelia patients.
PGE2 is synthetized in the body from arachidonic acid. COX enzymes are the last step to produce it in different tissues.
PGE2 acts as a vasodilator and inhibits platelet activation. We observe low blood pressure and bruising in our patients.
It reduces the activity of B lymphocyte differentiation and thus antibody formation. We observe more naïve B lymphocytes in our patient population.
Next to all this, PGE2 suppresses Th1 immunity (cellular immunity).
It contributes to inflammation by inducing vascular permeability (low blood volume) and lower pain threshold. By interference of the potassium channels it causes peripheral nerve pain.
Furthermore it plays a role in memory impairment, vasodilation of smooth muscle, hypothermia and decrease in intracellular calcium levels also affecting insulin release.
Many of the premenstrual end menstrual complaints our female patients report, can be attributed to higher than normal levels of PGE2.